Broccoli is another cool weather crop that you can grow at home. It is a cole crop and part of the Brassica family along with Brussels Sprouts, kale and cabbage.
Starting Seeds Early In The Season
Broccoli can take a long time to grow, some take 85 – 100 days to harvest, so it is a good idea to start the seeds early in the season. It is not uncommon to start them 4 – 6 weeks before the last frost of the season.
Start the seeds in planting cells and place the tray in a warm sunny location. Plant one seed per cell at 1/4 inch deep. Water lightly keeping the soil moist. Germination should begin in 4 -7 days. Once sprouted remove the lid and place in a sunny spot or under lights. The more light you can get the better so pick the sunniest spot in the house.
Seeds can be sown outdoors as soon as the ground can be worked. They can tolerate quite cold temperatures so waiting for the final frost is not necessary.
Where Should I grow Broccoli?
Broccoli requires lots of sunshine to grow. Be sure to plant in a location that receives at least 6 – 8 hours of sun a day.
Work the soil well adding amendments like compost, peat moss and sand if the soil is heavy. The compost will feed the plants giving them a nice strong start. The peat moss and sand will help with drainage and lessen soil compaction.
Plant in rows using a string guide to keep everything straight. Plant seeds 1/2 inch deep and 2 inches apart. Keep rows up to 3 feet apart. These rows will be thinned once the broccoli has sprouted.
Transplanting Indoor Started Seedlings
Transplants can be moved out to the garden at 4 – 5 weeks old.
The plants will need to be hardened off over a 2 week period before being planted. Set them outdoors in a shaded wind protected area for a few hours, extending their time outdoors by an hour or two each day. After 2 weeks they can safely be planted into the garden.
If you have a cold frame the 5 week seedlings can be moved to the frame to harden off.
Plant in rows, again using a string as a guide to keep everything straight. The planting hole should be slightly larger than the root ball. Space the plants 12 inches apart and rows up to 3 feet apart. Water well after planting.
Caring For Broccoli
Seeded rows can be thinned once seedling are 2 inches tall. Thin to 12 inches between plants.
If you practice mulching in your garden apply a thick layer to the rows. This maintains moisture and helps in reducing weeds. The root system of broccoli is shallow so take care when weeding the rows as to not disturb the roots.
Plan to fertilize the broccoli after the first month of growth. A balanced 20-20-20 multipurpose fertilizer is a good choice. Mix it following the manufactures instructions.
Once the heads begin to develop take care to avoid getting them wet when watering. Water the garden as needed, it may require more during the hottest part of the summer.
Harvest when the crowns are firm and tight and not yet flowering. Once the crowns start to loosen they will begin to flower.
Using a sharp knife cutting at an angle remove the head and 4 inches of stem. The side shoots of the stem should continue to grow buds. Continue to harvest throughout the season.
How To Store Broccoli
Wash the crowns well and allow to dry fully. Place into food storage bags once dry. Broccoli will store well in the fridge for up to 2 weeks.
You can also freeze broccoli for long term storage. The florets and stems will need to be blanched before freezing. This helps not only preserve the colour and nutrients but also the texture.
Wash the broccoli crowns well and break down smaller florets. You can also peel the stem and slice into half inch rounds.
In small batches drop the broccoli into boiling water for 2 minutes. Using a large slotted spoon remove the broccoli from the boiling water and immediately place it into an ice bath. Once chilled remove to dry on some paper towel. Package into freezer bags.
This article was written for and first published on Earth, Food and Fire.